Minerals of Myanmar

Myanmar is rich in minerals, coal, oil and natural gas. The major rock compositions of Myanmar are granite, pegmatite, pagodite, gneiss, schist, quartzite, slate, basalt, dolerite, gabro, pyroxeniite, sandstone, limestone and gravels. A number of important metallic minerals are found and extracted from deposits in mineral reserves. These are gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, tin, chromite, manganese, iron ore, tungsten and lithium. Fuels like coal, lignite, petroleum and natural gas are found with considerable reserves. Coal and lignite are found in the Basin of Irrawaddy River. Oil and natural gas are found in the coastal region and delta region of Irrawaddy river system. During the colonial period under British rule oil and natural gas were extracted on a regular basis. Gemstones are famous for the qualities. Gems like ruby,saphire,and jade are popular among the buyers. Diamond is also detected in some pockets. Industrial minerals like limestone, dolomite, gypsum, barite, graphite, feldspar, bentonite, kaolin, fireclay, ball clay, rocksalt and brine are found in sufficient quantities.

Mining of gold, gemstone, chromite, iron ore, tin and limestone is carried out on a regular basis. Extraction of oil and natural gas is on full swing. Survey and exploration of minerals are carried out in collaboration with other countries like China, India, UK, USA and Australia. Processing of gemstone and collection of gold from the placer deposits are carried out by local artisans. Beneficiation of chromite, iron ore and tin ore are carried out by processing plants. One oil refinery is refining crude oil for local consumption. Some amount of natural gas is exported to Thailand. Surplus crude oil, chromite, tin, iron ore and manganese ore are exported to China.