Middle East Region and Oil Resources

The Middle East region or the West Asia region is located between the Indian subcontinent and the Mediterranean region. The region is dry with stretches of desert and semi desert land. The rain fall is scanty and may not go above 600 mm per year. The cyclonic rain during September and October covers the coastal region of the Arabian Sea. The lands are rugged, barren, sandy and hilly in nature. Due to low rain fall and high temperature condition the rain water evaporates quickly and recharge of the underground rocks are negligible. So the number of streams and rivers are very limited. The flow of water in the existing rivers is also getting reduced .The Middle East region forms 34 percent of the land mass of the world. The vegetation is mostly thorny and arid plants The plants are scarce and limited to moist patches and oasis areas. Date palm and Acacia plants are found near oasis areas.

The region is composed of countries like Saudi Arab, Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, Iraq, Iran, Syria, Jordan, Israel and Lebanon. The region is rich in crude oil and natural gas. The region has 49 percent of crude oil and 40 percent of natural gas reserve of the world. A number of multinational companies are engaged in the exploration and extraction of crude oil and natural gas from this region. Many countries get crude oil, natural gas, petrol, diesel, heavy oil, kerosene, aviation fuel, lubricants and petrochemicals from this region. This region has large oil refineries and petrochemical industries. Mega power plants and refineries of aluminium and copper are also established to use the natural gas produced in this region. Products like naptha and bitumen are also produced from the byproducts of the oil refineries. Oil was discovered in Iraq, Saudi Arab and Iran by 1950. Large scale exploration of the Arab peninsula and the adjoining region was carried out by major oil companies of UK and USA. Discovery and extraction of oil and natural gas provide income to the countries like Saudi Arab, Iran Iraq, UAE, and Kuwait. The life of the local people changed and jobs are created for the people of this region. People from India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Philippines, and China came to this region for jobs and trade. The major oil producing countries are Saudi Arab, Iran Iraq, UAE, Qatar, Oman and Kuwait. The activities like oil extraction, refining, shipment, power generation and marketing provided boost to this region. The economy of this region improved and the quality of life of the people also improved considerably.

Infrastructure development, road construction, housing, and health care facilities are improved rapidly. Development of modern ports and airports are given priority in this region. The cities of this region are well connected to major cities of the world. Educational institutions grew up attracted teachers from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and European countries. Large scale supply of food products, fruits, vegetables and drinking water is made to this region from India, Pakistan, Australia and Europe. Sporting and Cultural events are organized in the cities of this region. Football is found to be very popular in this region. Food production is limited to countries like Israel and Lebanon. Syria Jordan and Yemen produces wheat and fruits for their local consumption. Coffee of Yemen is popular among the people. The date of Iran , Iraq and other countries are exported to other countries. Iran and Iraq produces wheat, fruits, meat, egg and vegetables for local consumption.

The major producers of oil and natural gas in this region are Saudi Arab, Iran, Iraq, UAE, Kuwait and Israel. Countries like Yemen, Syria, Jordan, Oman Bahrain and Lebanon are also dependent upon oil and natural gas for their energy requirements. Iran has coal and uranium deposits and gets energy from these minerals. Israel, Saudi Arab, Kuwait, UAE and Bahrain had gone for renewable energy like solar power and wind power. Oil and natural gas contributed significantly for the national economy of many countries of the Middle East region. The cities like Dubai, Doha, Muscat, Bahrain and Kuwait city became refueling points for the airlines of the world. Oil played major role in the development of this region. The countries of the adjoining regions also got boost due to the oil boom of the Middle East region. But new avenues of economic development have to be found out before the loss of oil in future.