Symbol:C
Boiling point:4,827'C
Electron configuration:[He]2s22p2
Atomic number:6
Atomic mass:12.01070.0008u

Carbon

Carbon is a non-metallic element. It is the seventh important element found in the earth crust. Along with hydrogen, carbon forms maximum number of compounds. Carbon occurs in free native state and compound state. It occurs as diamond and graphite in the mineral form. Diamond occurs as a component of ultra basic igneous rocks. Graphite occurs in metamorphic gneiss rocks. Diamond and graphite are found in crystalline forms. Carbon is also present in coal, charcoal, coke, petroleum and natural gas. All the plants and animals contain carbon compounds. Coal, coke and charcoal are the amorphous forms of carbon. All the hydrocarbon bearing materials are used for domestic fuel and industrial fuel. Diamond is the costlier form of carbon. It occurs in the ultra basic igneous rocks in structures like dyke and sills. It is the hardest natural substance. It has high relative density of around 3.5. Diamond is transparent and posses high refractive index of 2.45. It is non-conductor of heat and electricity. It is insoluble in all kind of solutions. It occurs as octahedral crystal. Diamond is used as decorative stones in jewellery. It is also used in tools for cutting glass and rocks. It is used in surgical instruments. The major producers of diamond are South Africa, Zaire, Botswana, Russia, Australia and India. India and Belgium are famous for processing of rough diamonds. Graphite occurs naturally in the metamorphic rocks. Large quantities of graphite materials are produced from coke in the electric arc furnace. Graphite is soft and greasy in nature. It is opaque and black in color. It is very good conductor of heat and electricity. It occurs in hexagonal crystal forms. It is used in used in production of pencils and paints. It is also used for production of lubricants. It is used for making of electrodes and refractory crucibles. Major producers of graphite are Russia, China, Australia, Brazil, India, Mexico, Austria, Germany, Madagascar and Sri Lanka.

Coal is formed by carbonization of wood and plant materials. The process of carbonization takes place in the absence of oxygen under high pressure and temperature conditions. Wood is converted to peat and peat is converted to lignite. Lignite is converted to bituminous coal. Common coal or bituminous coal is transformed in to coking coal or anthracite coal. Coal is used as fuel for domestic and industrial purpose. It is used for making coke, coal gas and producer gas. Coal is used for making of artificial graphite and fuel oil. Major producers of coal are Russia, China, USA, Brazil, Australia, India, South Africa, Poland, Germany, UK and Malaysia. Charcoal is used as a good quality domestic fuel. It is a porous and brittle material. It is black and opaque. It is a good reducing agent. It is used as fuel. It is also used for making of discoloring agent. It is produced by the process of destructive distillation. Wood is heated strongly under limited supply of air. The volatile substances escape out in to the atmosphere leaving black friable mass of charcoal. Carbon black is another form of carbon prepared by burning of natural gas in limited supply of air. It is used for production of automobile tubes and tires. Lamp black is another form of carbon produced by burning of vegetable oil. It is used for preparation of black paints, varnishes and carbon papers. Petroleum and natural gas also contain carbon as the important constituent. Petroleum is used for production of petrol, diesel, kerosene and other fuels. It is also used for production of petro chemicals. Natural gas is used as a clean fuel. Major producers of petroleum and natural gas are Russia, USA, Saudi Arab, Mexico, UK, China, Iran, Venezuela, Canada, Malaysia, Nigeria, Iraq, UAE, Yemen, Kuwait, Qatar and India. Other carbon bearing natural products are asphalt and bitumen. These are found in countries like Cuba, Venezuela and Canada. Asphalt and Bitumen are found in Caribbean islands.